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Accounting Basics

A small primer to get you up to speed on the concepts of accounting.

Let's understand the concept of accounting with the example of an imaginary business that is just starting out.

Owner Investment: Let’s say we’re starting a Home Interior business and we have ₹5,00,000 of capital to start our business.

Bank balance will initially be ₹5,00,000.

First Expense: We will need an operating place where we can work and meet clients. For this, we rent out a co-working space for ₹40,000 per month. This is our first expense.

Bank balance will now be ₹5,00,000 - ₹40,000 = ₹4,60,000.

First Income: We have invested some cash, and we have a working place. Now we make our first sale having a value of ₹30,000. We earned ₹30,000 from our first customer. This is our first income.

Bank balance at this point will be ₹4,60,000 + ₹30,000 = ₹4,90,000.

Accounts Payable: Finally, Let’s say we decided to hire a Web Agency to build a website for us, they charge ₹50,000 which will be paid after 2 months from current date.

At this point we haven’t paid them any money, but we are liable to pay them in the future. This is a liability and will be recorded under Accounts Payable.

Events and Accounts

Let’s list these events down in a table:

1Owner Investment+ ₹5,00,000
2Rent- ₹40,000
3Sales+ ₹30,000
4Accounts Payable- ₹50,000

Now, let's categorize these into the five types of Accounts and list their final balances:

1Asset (Bank)₹4,90,000
2Liabilities (Accounts Payable)₹50,000
3Equity (Owner Investment)₹5,00,000
4Income (Sales)₹30,000
5Expense (Rent)₹40,000

Impact on Accounts

Let’s take a look at each transaction and understand which accounts will get affected, from an accounting point-of-view:

1. Cash Investment

Since you, the owner, invested money into the business, it is a liability. So, Accounts Payable, which is a Liability account, is increased by ₹5,00,000.

Also, the money in the Bank Account, which is an Asset account, is increased by ₹5,00,000.

Accounts Payable₹5,00,0000
Bank Account0₹5,00,000

2. Rent

Rent is an immediate expense, so it is recorded in the Rent Account, which is an Expense account, it is increased by ₹40,000.

Also, the money is spent from the Bank Account, which is an Asset account, it is decreased by ₹40,000.

Rent Account0₹40,000
Bank Account₹40,0000

3. First Sale

We got an immediate payment, it is recorded in Sales Account, which is an Income account, the balance is increased by ₹30,000.

Also, we received the money in our Bank Account directly, so it’s balance increases by ₹30,000.

Income Account₹30,0000
Bank Account0₹30,000

4. Hiring a Web Agency

We hired a Web Agency for some work, and we are liable to pay them in the future. This is recorded in Accounts Payable by increasing the amount by ₹50,000.

Since this is an expense for us, we also increase the balance in the Vendor Expense Account by ₹50,000.

Accounts Payable₹50,0000
Expense Account0₹50,000

As you might have noticed, every transaction we do in our business affects two accounts. This is the basis of double-entry bookkeeping system.

You can test this out by creating a Sales Invoice in Frappe Books, and then check the General Ledger Report to see which accounts were affected.

Credit and Debit

The words Credit and Debit mean different things when applied to different accounts.

  • For Assets and Expense accounts Credit implies a decrease in balance and Debit implies and increase in balance.

  • For Liabilities and Income accounts Credit implies an increase in balance and Debit implies and decrease in balance.


You can remember this by the abbreviation AEDLIC which would stand for:

Assets and Expenses Debit, Liabilities and Income Credit